Music Education and Young People:
Students in music programs scored 63 points higher on the verbal and 44 points higher on the math sections of the SATs than students with no music participation. (The College Entrance Board, 2001)
Regardless of socioeconomic background, according to a ten-year study that tracked more than 25,000 students, music-making students get higher marks on standardized tests than those who have no music involvement. (Catterall, 2002)
Students with course work/experience in music performance scored 57 points higher on the verbal portion of the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) and 41 points higher on the math portion of the SAT than students with no course work or experience in the arts, for a combined total of 98 points higher. (The College Entrance Board, 2001)
Music students received more academic honors and awards than non-music students. These music students also have more A and B grades compared to non-music students. (U.S. Department of Education, 1988)
Musical activities provide children with important experiences that can help them develop physical coordination, timing, memory, visual, aural and language skills. When they work to increase their command of music and exercise musical skills in the company of others, they gain important experience with self-paced learning, mental concentration and a heightened personal and social awareness. (AMC 1998 Publication: “Music and Your Child”)
A 10 year study involving 25,000 students shows that music-making improves test scores in standardized tests, as well as in reading proficiency exams. (Catterall, 1997)
A study, using six to fifteen year-old boys, found that music training significantly increased verbal memory. And as expected, the longer the training, the better the verbal memory. (Ho, Cheung, & Chan, 2003)
U.S. Department of Education data showed that students involved in band or orchestra during their middle and high school years demonstrated significantly higher levels of math proficiency by grade twelve. The results were even more pronounced for low-income families. Those who took instrumental music were more than twice as likely to perform at the highest levels in math as their peers who were not involved in music. (Catterall, 2002)
Music lessons have been shown to improve a child’s performance in school. A research team exploring the link between music and intelligence reports that children who received piano/keyboard training performed 34% higher on tests measuring spatial-temporal ability than the others. These findings indicate that music uniquely enhances higher brain functions required for mathematics, chess, science and engineering. (Frances Rauscher, Ph.D., Gordon Shaw, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine)
There is a direct correlation between improved SAT scores and the length of time spent studying the arts. Those who studied the arts four or more years scored 68 points higher on verbal and 51 points higher on math portions of the SAT than students with no coursework or experience in the arts for a combined total of 119 points higher. (The College Entrance Board, 2001)
Widespread notion is that instructional time spent on music courses is wasted because it takes away from the time used for academic core subjects and thus slows down student progress in those courses. [However] our results imply that music participation benefits students in ways that are directly or indirectly linked to higher academic achievement in general. (Gouzouasis, P., Guhn, M., & Kishow, N., The University of British Columbia)
Students who participate in school band or orchestra have the lowest levels of current and lifelong use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs among any groups in our society. (U.S. House of Representatives, 2000)
Six to nine year-old students with learning difficulties specific to reading were tracked in a 30-week study in Michigan. Post-test results indicated that the music program had a significant positive effect on the students' receptive vocabulary. (Bygrave, 1995)
Research reviews indicate that drumming enhances recovery [from drug addiction] through inducing relaxation and enhancing theta-wave production and brain-wave synchronization. Drumming produces pleasurable experiences, enhanced awareness of preconscious dynamics, release of emotional trauma, and reintegration of self. Drumming alleviates self-centeredness, isolation, and alienation, creating a sense of connectedness with self and others. Drumming provides a secular approach to accessing a higher power and applying spiritual perspectives. ("Drumming Out Drugs", M. Winkelman)
Students in the arts are found to be more cooperative with teachers and peers, more self-confident and better able to express their ideas. (Burton, 1999)
Playing a musical instrument can reverse stress at the molecular level.
(Loma Linda University School of Medicine and Applied Biosystems (as published in Medical Science Monitor))
Playing music increases human growth hormone HgH production among active older Americans. A study following 130 people over two 10-week periods measured participants' levels of HgH. The findings revealed that the test group who took group keyboard lessons showed significantly higher levels of HgH than the control group people who did not make music. (University of Miami)
Playing music positively affects the development of children's cognitive skills. It builds confidence, self-discipline and inspires creativity. Also, playing music can increase productivity and help kids and teens connect socially with their peers. (NAMM Foundation)
Americans Support Music Education:
A 2000 Gallup survey commissioned by NAMM (International Music Products Association) on “Americans' Attitudes Toward Music, Music Making, and Music Education"
97% agree that playing a musical instrument is a good means of self-expression
95% believe it provides a sense of accomplishment
81% agree participation in a school music program corresponds to better grades and test scores
95% of respondents agree music should be part of a well-rounded education
97% believe school band is a good way for young people to develop teamwork
Bygrave, P. (1995). Development of Receptive Vocabulary Skills Through Exposure to Music. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 127, 28-34.
Catterall, J. (2002). The Arts and the Transfer of Learning. R. Deasy (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in The Arts and Student Achievement and Social Development, Washington, DC: AEP.
College Board Seniors National Report Profile of SAT Program Test Takers, Princeton, NJ: The College Entrance Examination Board, 2001.
Complementary Therapy for Addiction: "Drumming Out Drugs," M. Winkelman.
Frank R. Wilson, M.D.; Associate Clinical Professor of Neurology - University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco; AMC 1998 Publication: “Music and Your Child.”
From Neurological Research Feb 28, 1997; Frances Rauscher, Ph.D., Gordon Shaw, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine.
Gouzouasis, P., Guhn, M., & Kishow, N., The relationship between achievement and participation in music and achievement in core grade twelve academic subjects, The University of British Columbia.
National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 First Follow-Up, U.S. Department of Education.
Profiles of SAT and Achievement Test Takers 2001, The College Board.